The history of the United States is large and also complex, but can be broken down right into milestones and periods that split, combined, and altered the United States right into the country it is now. The American flag really did not resemble like it does now. Other than that, it went through a lot of modifications as well as alterations.
The American Revolutionary War
Enter the American Revolution. Often referred to as the American War of Independence, or the Revolutionary War, it was a war which lasted from 1775-1783 and permitted the original 13 colonies to stay independent from Great Britain. Beginning in Great Britain in the late 1790s, the Industrial Revolution ultimately made its path to the United States as well as altered the focus of the country’s economic situation and the means it produces products.
These tensions arose from expanding tensions in between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and also the colonial government (which represented the British crown). Attempts by the British government to increase revenue by collectin tax from the colonies (especially the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Tariffs of 1767 as well as the Tea Act of 1773) met with negative protest among many colonists, who resented their lack of representation in Parliament as well as required the exact same civil liberties as other British subjects.
George Washington was made its leader. Congress hoped they might force the British to negotiate but George III rejected to negotiate. Rather, in August 1775 he proclaimed that all the American colonies were in a state of disobedience.
By the autumn of 1781, the American forces had actually managed to compel the adversary to withdraw to Virginia’s Yorktown peninsula, near where the York River clears into Chesapeake Bay. Stating health problems, the British general sent his deputy, Charles O’Hara, to give up; after O’Hara came close to Rochambeau to surrender his sword (the Frenchman deferred to Washington), Washington provided the nod to his own replacement, Benjamin Lincoln, who approved it. After French aid aided the Continental Army compel the British abandonment at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had actually effectively won their independence, though combatting would certainly not formally end up until 1783.
The motion for American freedom efficiently won at Yorktown, modern historians did not see that as the crucial victory. British as well as American arbitrators in Paris authorized preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, as well as on September 3, 1783, Great Britain officially recognized the freedom of the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
How the American Flag came to be
The American flag was developed to represent the brand-new union of the thirteen initial states: it would certainly have thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, as well as thirteen stars, white on a blue area. Among the first flags had the stars laid out in a circle, based on the concept that all colonies were equal. The thirteen stripes, laid out side by side, stood for the battle for freedom; red meant valor, white signified purity as well as blue stood for commitment.
In 1818, after a couple of layout modifications, the United States Congress decided to keep the flag’s original thirteen stripes and also add brand-new stars to show each new state that joined the union.
While there is no doubt that the genuine Betsy Ross was worthy of interest in her very own right, it is the tale of Betsy stitching the initial stars and stripes that has actually made her a memorable historic number. The Betsy Ross tale was offered spotlight in 1870 by her grand son, William Canby, in a speech he made to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Canby as well as various other participants of Betsy’s family members signed sworn affidavits stating that they heard the story of the making of the first flag from Betsy’s own mouth.
According to the oral history, in 1776, 3 men – George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross, checked out Betsy Ross in her upholstery store. She escorted them to her parlor, where they could have a private meeting. Here, Washington took a folded piece of paper from his inside coat pocket. On it, was a sketch of a flag with thirteen red and also white stripes and also thirteen six-pointed stars.
Washington asked if Betsy could make a flag from the design. Betsy reacted: “I don’t know, but I will attempt.” This line was utilized in the vouched declarations of most of Betsy’s members of the family, recommending that it is a straight quote from Betsy. As the story goes, Betsy suggested transforming the stars to 5 points rather than 6. She showed them how you can do it with simply one snip of her scissors. They all accepted to alter the style to have stars with 5 points.
Some historians believe that it was Francis Hopkisnon who offered birth to the idea of the Stars and Stripes. Francis Hopkinson was a preferred patriot, a lawyer, a Congressman from New Jersey, an endorser of the Declaration of Independence, poet, musician, as well as distinguished civil servant.
He was designated to the Continental Navy Board on November 6,1776. It was while working on the Continental Navy Board that he transformed his focus on creating the flag of the United States. Making use of stars in that style is thought to have actually been the result of an experience in the war directly pertaining to his propriety.
A book in Hopkinson’s collection at his residence in Bordentown was taken by a Hessian soldier in December 1776, a dark year of the war. The soldier, one I. Ewald, wrote on the inside cover that he had seen the author near Philadelphia and that he, Ewald, had actually taken the book from a great nation seat near Philadelphia. The soldier had written above and also listed below Hopkinson’s bookplate, which had three 6 pointed stars and also his family slogan, “Semper Paratus”, or “Always Ready”.
In a letter to the Board of Admiralty in 1780 Hopkinson insisted that he had designed “the flag of the United States of America” along with several ornaments, devices, and checks showing up on bills of exchange, ship papers, the seals of the boards of Admiralty and also Treasury, and the Great Seal of the United States. Hopkinson had received absolutely nothing for this work, and now he sent a bill and asked “whether a Quarter Cask of the public wine” would certainly not be an affordable and also correct incentive for his labors.
Nevertheless, no one can be so certain that created the American flag. The American flag is the sacred symbol of the country. It symbolizes the peoples’ birthright, their heritage of freedom bought with blood as well as sorrow. The title deed of liberty, which is the country’s to enjoy as well as keep in trust for posterity. Infinite watchfulness is the price of liberty. As you see the flag silhouetted in front of the relaxed skies of the country, you are reminded that the American flag represents just what you are – no more, no less.
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As quoted from the Star Spangled Banner:
O say can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O’er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
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